Mycorrhizal dependency and growth response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. under saline condition
In pursuit of salinity-mycorrhiza interaction, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the dependence of Gliricidia sepium on arbuscular mycorrhizal association under salinity stress, which was imposed using different concentrations of sodium chloride solutions. The present study revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; Rhizophagus fasciculatus significantly increased growth and biomass of G. sepium plants under saline condition. G. sepium showed a high degree of dependence on mycorrhizal symbiosis under saline as compared to non-saline condition. Under non-saline condition (SS0), G. sepium plants exhibited 23.9% dependence on R. fasciculatus, which increased with increase in the levels of salinity. At SS3 level, G. sepium plants showed 46.6% mycorrhizal dependency followed by SS2 and SS1 levels of salinity. However, there was no significant difference between mycorrhizal dependency of G. sepium at SS1 and SS2 levels of salinity. Improved growth of G. sepium under salinity stress revealed R. fasciculatus a promising inoculant for the reclamation of degraded saline soils.
2. Singh YP. Sustainable reclamation of sodic soils: farmer’s participatory approaches. In: Gupta SK, Goyal MR, editors. Soil Salinity management in agriculture: technological advances and applications. CRC press, Taylor and Francis; 2017.p. 289-313.
3. Gupta SK, Goyal MR, editors. Soil Salinity management in agriculture: technological advances and applications. CRC press, Taylor and Francis; 2017.
4. Gadkar V, David-Schwartz R, Kunik T, Kapulnik Y. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Factors involved in host recognition. Plant Physiol. 2001; 127: 1493–9. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.010783
5. Gomes SIF, Merckx VSFT, Saavedra S. Fungal-host diversity among myco-heterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap. Ecology and Evolution 2017; 10: 3623-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2974
6. Bender SFC, van der Heijden MG. An underground revolution: biodiversity and soil ecological engineering for agricultural Sustainability. Trends Ecol Evol. 2016; 31(6):440-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.016
7. Smith SE, and Read DJ. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press; 2008.
8. Azcon-Aguiler C, Azcon R, Barea JM. Endomycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium as biological fertilizers for Medicago sativa in normal cultivation. Nature 1979; 279:325–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/279325a0
9. Ruiz-Lozano JM, Porcel R, Azcón C, Aroca R. Regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae of the integrated physiological response to salinity in plants: new challenges in physiological and molecular studies. J Exp Bot. 2012; 63:4033–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ers126
10. Li L, Zhang H, Zhang L, Zhou Y, Yang R, Ding C et al. The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2014; 20(2):161–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-014-0228-4
11. Ebrahim MKH, Saleem A. Alleviating salt stress in tomato inoculated with mycorrhizae: photosynthetic performance and enzymatic antioxidants, J. Taibah Univ Sci. (in press) 2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2017.02.002
12. Okon IE, Osonubi O, and Sangingav N. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza effects on Gliricidia sepium and Senna siamea in a fallowed alley cropping system. Agroforestry Systems 1996; 33: 165-75. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00213648
13. Gerdemann JW. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. In: Torrey JG, Clarkson DT editors. The Development and Function of Roots, Academic Press, London;1975.p. 575-92.
14. Kapoor R, Giri B, Mukerji KG. Mycorrhization of coriander to enhance the concentration and quality of oil in seeds. J Sci Food Agric. 2002; 82:1–4.
15. Singh D, Chhonkar PK, Pandey RN. Soil plant water analysis: a methods manual. Division of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Indian Institute of Agricultural Research, New Delhi; 2001.
16. Walkley A, Black IA. An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 1934; 37: 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-193401000-00003
17. Jackson ML. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt, New Delhi; 1962.
18. Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. (Circular of the US Department of Agriculture 939) USDA, Washington, D.C; 1954.
19. Hanway JJ, Heidel H. Soil analysis methods as used in Iowa state college soil testing laboratory. Iowa Agric. 1952; 57:1–31.
20. Philips J, Hayman DS. Improved procedure for cleaning roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Br Mycol Soc. 1970; 55:158–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3
21. Giovannetti M, Mosse B. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytol. 1980; 84:489–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1980.tb04556.x
22. Allen SE. Chemical analysis of ecological materials, 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London; 1989.
23. Plenchette C, Fortm JA, Furlan V. Growth response of several plant species to mycorrhizae in a soil of moderate P fertility. I. Mycorrhizal dependency under field conditions. Plant Soil 1983; 70: 199- 209. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02374780
24. Santander C, Aroca R, Ruiz-Lozano JM, Olave J, Cartes P, Borie F et al. Arbuscular mycorrhiza effects on plant performance under osmotic stress. Mycorrhiza 2017; 27:639-57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-017-0784-x
25. Saxena B, Shukla K, Giri B. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and tolerance of salt stress in plants. In: Wu QS, editor. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and stress tolerance of plants. Springer Nature Singapore; 2017.p.67-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4115-0_4
26. McMillen B, Juniper S, Abbott LK. Inhibition of hyphal growth of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in soil containing sodium chloride limits the spread of infection from spores. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1998; 30:1639–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00204-6
27. Jahromi F, Aroca R, Porcel R, Ruiz-Lozano JM. Influence of salinity on the in vitro development of Glomus intraradices and on the in vivo physiological and molecular responses of mycorrhizal lettuce plants. Microbial Ecology 2008; 55:45–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9249-7
28. Evelin H, Giri B, Kapoor R. Contribution of Glomus intraradicesinoculation to nutrient acquisition and mitigation of ionic imbalance in NaCl-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum. Mycorrhiza 2012; 22:203–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-011-0392-0
29. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth, biomass and mineral nutrition of Acacia auriculiformis. Biol Fertil Soils 2003; 38:170–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-003-0636-z
30. Giri B, Mukerji KG. Mycorrhizal inoculant alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptiaca and Sesbania grandiflora under field conditions: evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza 2004; 14:307–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-003-0274-1
31. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG. Improved tolerance of Acacia nilotica to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomus fasciculatum may be partly related to elevated K+/Na+ ratios in root and shoot tissues. Microbial Ecology 2007; 54:753–760. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9239-9
32. Sannazzaro AI, Echeverria M, Alberto EO, Ruiz OA, Menendez AB. Modulation of polyamine balance in Lotus glaber by salinity and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007; 45:39–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.12.008
33. Shokri S, Maadi B. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the mineral nutrition and yield of Trifolium alexandrinum plants under salinity stress. J Agron. 2009; 8:79–83. https://doi.org/10.3923/ja.2009.79.83
34. Khan MN, Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Naeem M, Khan MMA. Calcium chloride and gibberellic acid protect linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) from NaCl stress by inducing antioxidative defence system and osmoprotectant accumulation. Acta Physiol Plant. 2010; 32:121–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0387-z
35. Evelin H, Kapoor R, Giri B. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review. Ann Bot.2009; 104:1263–81. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcp251
36. Janos DP. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae affect lowland tropical rain forest plant growth. Ecology 1980; 61: 151-62. https://doi.org/10.2307/1937165
37. Brundrett MC, Kendrick B. The mycorrhizal status, root anatomy, and phenology of plants in a sugar maple forest. Can J Bot. 1988; 66: 1153-73. https://doi.org/10.1139/b88-166
38. Kumar A, Sharma S, Mishra S. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and salinity on seedling growth, solute accumulation and mycorrhizal dependency of Jatropha curcas L. J Plant Growth Regul. 2010; 29: 297–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-009-9136-1
39. Diaz G, Azcon-Aguilar C, Honrubia M. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on heavy metals (Zn and Pb) uptake and growth of Lygeum spartum and Anthyllis cytisoides. Plant Soil 1996; 180: 241–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00015307
40. Giri B, Kapoor R, Mukerji KG. Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizae Glomus fasciculatum and G. macrocarpum on the growth and nutrient content of Cassia siamea in a semi-arid Indian wasteland soil. New Forests 2005; 29:63–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-4689-0
41. Al-Karaki GN, Hammad R, Rusan M. Response of two tomato cultivars differing in salt tolerance to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi under salt stress. Mycorrhiza 2001; 11:43–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s005720100098
42. Tawaraya K. Arbuscular mycorrhizal dependency of different plant species and cultivars. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 2003; 49(5): 655-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2003.10410323
43. Graham JH, Eissenstat DM. Host genotype and the formation and function of VA mycorrhizae. Plant Soil 1994; 159:179-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00000107
44. Giri B, Kapoor R, Agarwal L, Mukerji KG. Pre-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae helps Acacia auriculiformis grow in degraded Indian wasteland soil. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal. 2004; 35:193–204. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120027643
45. Bethlenfalvay GJ, Bayne HG, Pacovsky S. Parasitic and mutualistic associations between a mycorrhizal fungus and soybean: The effect of phosphorus on host plant endophyte interactions. Physiol Plant. 1983; 57: 543-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1983.tb02783.x
46. Menge JA, Johnson ELV, Platt RG. Mycorrhizal dependency of several citrus cultivars under three nutrient regimes. New Phytol.1978; 81: 553-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1978.tb01628.x
47. Giri B,Kapoor R, Mukerji KG. Sesbania aegypatiaca Pers seedling response to VA mycorrhization in two types of soil. Phytomorphology 2000; 50: 327
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).